LONDON is one of the most popular cities on the planet yet it’s a national hobby to dislike it.
Many who live in the surrounding counties wouldn’t drive 50 miles to see it. They say “you can keep London”. They say it’s full of pollution, politics and expensive pints. To the office worker there’s another story: London means a long commute, crowded trains and the nine-to-five. The greatest virtue to them is that they can get in and out quickly. Even to Londoners, the capital is a mystery. It comes with a history which many don’t like – but others don’t know.
How is it that so little is known about a city so big? London is lost. My mission during lockdown has been to find London and to remind people this is no ordinary capital. Everything we travel for is here on our doorstep: history, art, culture, architecture even islands and beaches – with real sand.
London is an ancient city, a royal city, a cathedral city, a stone city, more recently an Olympic city. It’s filled with parks, palaces, pubs, and markets. London is yet to be discovered. It should be the eighth wonder of the world so here are a few things to know about this city.
One: Roman City
The story begins about 2,000 years ago when the emperor Claudius sailed across the Channel and up the Thames.
I hope it was a sunny afternoon when he arrived. Maybe there were foxes on the bank. Some wild flowers. Perhaps a few people were sitting in the back wondering what was going to happen next. Maybe some drizzle fell when they came ashore and they talked about the weather while they put the kettle on. How very English!
Poor Claudius doesn’t get a favourable write up in the history books. He’s painted as being unloved, a bit dim, but still he is the man who founded our Londinium – just a town, in the year 43.
He stayed for two weeks although the Roman Empire lasted 400 years. That’s not a little bit of time. What they did for was was build the London wall. Strangely it’s not Unesco listed and the parts that remain are ruins. Importantly it marked out the area known today as the City of London.
I bet it’s one of the the most instragammed square-miles in the world. But this isn’t Manhattan. It’s not even considered the centre of London (Google maps gives that to Trafalgar Square or to the Eleanor Cross in the car park at Charing Cross). Instead you could call it the Old Town. It still has its own separate police force who wear red cheques in their helmets not blue like the Metropolitan Police. Plus, there are only a handful of skyscrapers.
Walk inside this ancient city at night and you’ll feel the history pulling you down its narrow alleyways. Head to the Monument, down Pudding Lane towards the Thames where you’ll hear the splashing of the water on the beaches and the bank. It’s spooky. You might bump into a famous ghost. Boo!
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Two: River City
For centuries the river was the beating heart of the Square Mile. The first settlements were built around the water, at Walbrook – today that’s where Mansion House is, near Bank Tube Station.
Once packed with ships carrying cargo from around the world, the Thames had more than 30,000 people working on the water. The River Police was the first force set up in England in 1798 to deal with the gangs of thieves. That’s decades before the Met Police started in 1829.
Sadly today it’s quiet. The sailors are gone. The docks are locked up and the wharves have been turned into riverside flats. Billingsgate fish market was shut and moved in 1982.
There are a few tourist boats and the Thames Clippers service but there’s not much to draw you to the water other than the view. The giants of London’s landmarks are found on the embankment. Best seen from the water you can call them out: Tower Bridge, the Tower of London, St Paul’s Cathedral, Shakespeare’s Globe theatre, Cleopatra’s Needle, Westminster – and more recently on the south bank, there’s the Shard and the London Eye.
But in the summer the beaches are empty. There’s no swimming or paddle boarding, and no row boats to take you to the famous, historic pubs, like the Prospect of Whitby in Wapping, which still has its noose hanging out the back – used for pirates in the 1700s.
The river is perhaps though the last wild place in London with more than 100 species of fish in the water and birds and bats that nest and forage on the banks.
Three: Stone City
Londinium was built up bit by bit: a fort here, a tower there, a bridge across the river and Roman roads laid long and straight.
During the Great Fire in 1666 so much was lost. The timber city burned well. Samuel Pepys was 33 when he wrote about it in his diary. Walk down Cheapside to see the number of plaques that mark out where the market stalls, workshops, pubs and churches once stood. It’s like a cemetery. To make sure this didn’t happen again, the Square Mile turned to stone: Portland Stone, from Dorset. This became the main building block of London.
In the years that followed large white buildings went up including the Bank of England, Mansion House and the Royal Exchange. They must have looked stern on the landscape but the architectural idea was to construct grand and solid institutions.
Sir Christopher Wren used this precious stone to build St Paul’s Cathedral. You’ll also find it on Regent’s Street, Piccadilly, The Cenotaph, Buckingham Palace, Chelsea Barracks, the list goes on and on and on. All this isn’t encased in a museum. It’s out there.
Four: Royal City
The most beautiful of all the royal residences is the Palace of Westminster, better known as The Houses of Parliament.
It is one of the 11 official royal homes in London so if the Queen does ever come back (having been away since the coronavirus pandemic) I think she should kick those politicians out. It’s too flamboyant for a place of politics.
Westminster is just beautiful to look at. The hours of workmanship that must have gone into it is painstaking. The whole building looks as if it were hand carved to within an inch of its life. It has the clock tower and the famous gong of Big Ben. It’s been at the centre of drama, democracy and drunken MPs for centuries. If only the walls could talk!
Buckingham Palace is no place for kings and queens. It doesn’t even have turrets and life there is clearly no fairytale. It might be surrounded by parkland but Westminster sits on the Thames and it’s Unesco listed – just one of four sites in London that is.
Five: Cathedral City
London has four cathedrals and an abbey. When I asked about this at St Paul’s I was given an obvious answer. In earlier days London wasn’t the large metropolis it is today.
There was the City of London which had St Paul’s Cathedral. Next door was the City of Westminster – the seat of royals and politicians – they had Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral, which is Roman Catholic and in Victoria.
But then Southwark, which grew up outside the City of London on the other side of the Thames, gives us another two: Southwark Cathedral (Anglian) and St George’s Cathedral (Roman Catholic). So that’s five! Is there another city in the world with so many?
It’s not clear why St Paul’s is dedicated to the missionary. He was a big traveller but it’s not thought he ever visited the city even though he was alive when Londinium was founded. He died in the year 67.
London is also a land of churches. Before the Fire of London there were more than 100 churches in the Square Mile – 85 were destroyed. Sir Christoper Wren rebuilt 51.
My favourite is the bells of St Clement Danes, down the Strand, only because it plays the nursery rhyme on the hour. It’s also the RAF church and was finished by Wren in 1682.
Six: Transport City
How much fun is it to go underground, down near vertical escalators, to travel at 20.5mph and arrive miles away but only 10 minutes later? It’s genius.
This happened in the 1840s: we picked up our spades and started digging, not for treasure, but for travel. We tunnelled down like rats to create the London Underground. Then on a cold and cloudy (probably) Saturday 10th January 1863, the Metropolitan Railway opened. It went from Paddington to Farringdon and now is part of the Circle Line. This makes it the world’s oldest underground line.
What a lot can happen in 150 years: there are now 11 lines and still we are burrowing with the Elizabeth Line due to open in the summer of 2021.
Never before has a city so big been so easy to cross. Nothing gives you a better feel for the size of London than the Tube map. It brings adventure in every direction.
Above ground we see the iconic red buses and black cabs. There are more than 15 major railway stations with trains that will take you out into the countryside and across the border to France and beyond. There are planes that will take you to every point of the compass and a cruise terminal where you can board a ship and sail north to Amsterdam or south to Santander.
It’s astonishing. London is a mega transport hub. Escape is everywhere.